Thursday, May 9, 2013

DALAM & LUAR: Model Penambahbaikan Pengajaran Guru @ Polisi Pendidikan

Terdapat pelbagai kaedah boleh dilaksanakan dalam meningkatkan pembelajaran murid. Salah satunya adalah melalui penambahbaikan pengajaran guru dalam bilik darjah dan penambahbaikan dari segi polisi pendidikan. Sila berikan beberapa model sarjana tempatan dan barat yang telah melaksanakan kajian mereka tentang perkara ini.


Bagi menjawab soalan ini, saya mulakan pencarian saya dengan menyalari internet, membaca kajian-kajian yang telah dilakukan baik di luar negara mahupun di dalam negara. Hasil daripada carian saya adalah seperti berikut:


A. Co-teaching Model


Co-pengajaran ditakrifkan sebagai dua orang guru yang bekerja bersama-sama dengan kumpulan pelajar dan berkongsi perancangan, organisasi, penyampaian dan penilaian pengajaran serta ruang fizikal. Co-pengajaran adalah bersifat kolaboratif dan komunikasi yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pembelajaran pelajar. Kejayaan co-pengajaran bergantung kepada penglibatan aktif kedua-dua guru dalam semua aspek pengajaran.

Enam pendekatan yang digunakan adalah seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah:






Bahan pembacaan saya:

  1. IMPROVING STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT USING A CO-TEACHING MODEL OF STUDENT TEACHING by Nancy Bacharach, Teresa Heck, and Kathyrn Dahlberg, St. Cloud State University(http://coehs.umt.edu/deanoffice/accred/ncate/standard3/St.%20Cloud-Co%20Teach%20Model.pdf)
  2. Implementing a Co-Teaching Model for Improving EFL learners’ Grammatical Proficiency by Mohammad Aliakbari, PhD Ali Mansoori Nejad, MA, (http://conference.pixel-online.net/ICT4LL2010/common/download/Proceedings_pdf/ILT17-Aliakbari.pdf)

B. Lesson Study ( Kajian Pengajaran) 


Lesson study involves a small team of instructors (researcher and the candidate teachers), working together to design, teach, study, and refine a single class lesson. This work culminates in at least four tangible products; the first including a detailed usable lesson plan, second is an in-depth study of the lesson that investigates teaching and learning interactions, third is explaining how students respond to instruction, and fourth is how instruction might be further modified based on the evidence collected. 





Bahan bacaan saya:


  1. Pengenalan Lesson Study (http://www.ppdkp.net/UNIT%20AKADEMIK%20PPDKP/downloads/pengenalan_ls.pdf)
  2. Lesson Study as a Model for Building Pedagogical Knowledge and Improving Teaching by William Cerbin and Bryan Kopp, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse (http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/pdf/ijtlhe110.pdf)
  3. Mathematics Teaching Via the Lesson Study Model (http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/IJES/IJES-05-0-000-13-Web/IJES-05-1-000-13-ABST-PDF/IJES-05-1-011-13-234-Bayaga-A/IJES-05-1-011-13-234-Bayaga-A-Tt.pdf)
  4. Improving Teaching Through Lesson Study by Tracy C. Rock and Cathy Wilson (http://www.teqjournal.org/backvols/2005/32_1/rock%26wilson.pdf)

C. The Classroom Flip Model/ Flip Teaching


The classroom flip (or inverted classroom) is one such innovative classroom structure that moves the lecture outside the classroom via technology and moves homework and practice with concepts inside the classroom via learning activities.



Bahan bacaan saya:


  1. http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/07/ff_khan/all/1
  2. http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/249331/Inverted_Classroom_Paper.pdf
  3. http://fie-conference.org/fie2010/papers/1321.pdf


D.     Teacher Leadership / Teacher Leader Model Standard












Bahan bacaan saya:

  1. Teacher Leadership: Rational, Strategy and Impact by David Frost and Judy Durrant, School Leadership and Management, Vol 23, No. 2, May 2003. (http://classes.uleth.ca/200701/educ5850ola/TeacherLeadership.pdf)
  2. The Principal as Chief Learning Officer: Developing Teacher Leaders by Ruth C. Ash and J. Maurice Persall (http://www.change-specialists.com/articles/The%20Principal%20as%20Chief%20Learning%20Officer.pdf)


E.      Professional Learning Communities

PLC ialah singkatan kepada program profesional learning communities. PLC merupakan koleksi aktiviti akademik secara bersepadu berteraskan lima strategi utama sebagai usaha menyokong dan memperbaiki pencapaian murid dan sekolah.  PLC akan menjadi simbol usaha secara komprehensif dan cita-cita besar KPM bagi mencabar, memotivasi serta membantu sekolah meningkatkan pencapaian.

Professional Learning Community (PLC) merujuk kepada para pendidik yang komited dan bekerja secara kolaboratif serta berterusan dalam membuat inkuiri atau kajian tindakan untuk mencapai prestasi yang lebih baik untuk murid-murid mereka.(Rosenholtz, 1989; Little & McLaughlin, 1993; DuFour, Eaker, & Many, 2006, )

Bahan bacaan saya:

  1. Professional Learning Communities: An Ongoing Exploration by Melanie S. Morrissey (http://allthingsplc.info/pdf/articles/plc-ongoing.pdf)


F.      The Six Steps Teaching Factory Learning Program Model or the 6M-     
         Teaching Factory Learning Model (TF-6M Model).

Bahan bacaan saya:


  1. DEVELOPING A TEACHING FACTORY LEARNING MODEL TO IMPROVE PRODUCTION COMPETENCIES AMONG MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN A VOCATIONAL SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Dadang Hidayat Martawijaya , Indonesia University of Education,Indonesia (http://penerbit.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/JTET/article/viewFile/637/413)


G. Trust School Programme


Trust School Programme is a response to Malaysian Government’s call for greater Public-Private Partnerships (“PPP”) in the education sector towards improving student outcomes and school 

performance.


Bahan bacaan saya:


  1. MEDIA STATEMENT, 10 December 2010, Khazanah’s Yayasan Amir launches 10 Trust Schools under a Public-Private Partnership (http://www.khazanah.com.my/docs/10Dec2010_TrustSchool_statement.pdf)









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